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A WORLD OF ART sixth edition A WORLD OF ART HENRY M. SAYRE Oregon State University-Cascades Campus Prentice Hall Author: Henry M. Sayre downloads Views MB Size. This book was set in 11/13 Goudy. Book Details Author: Henry M. Sayre Pages: Publisher: Pearson Brand: English ISBN: Publication Date: Release Date: Also available with MyArtsLab® MyArtsLab for the Art Appreciation course extends learning online to engage students and improve results. Compatible Devices: Can be read on any devices (site, NOOK, Android/IOS devices, Windows, MAC) Author: by Henry M. Sayre (Author) This is the eBook of the printed book and not include any media, website access codes, or print supplements that come packaged with the bound.


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Visual art can be powerfully persuasive, and one of the purposes of this book is to help you to recognize how this is so. Yet it is important for you to understand. A World of Art chapter. On February 12, , across the acre expanse of New York City's Central Park,. 7, saffron-colored fabric panels were dropped . ISBN Click Here to View the Sample.

Really to understand whether art learning transfers to academic performance, we need first to assess what is actually learned in the arts and then to specify the mechanisms that underlie a transfer hypothesis. Hetland et al. The goal was to understand what is taught, in order to be able to develop a plausible theoretical transfer hypothesis.

This work is the first to demonstrate objectively the kinds of thinking skills and working styles taught in arts classes. The group is now investigating the possibility that the skill of envisioning, taught in visual arts classes, may foster geometric reasoning ability. Studies of Intersensory Connections and the Arts Neuroimaging studies have revealed that visual arts as well as music engage many aspects of brain function, and involve nearly every neural subsystem identified so far Zeki, ; Solso, ; Brown et al.

Could this fact account for claims that arts exercise other part of the brain and improve other cognitive abilities? Experience with the visual arts may be expected to produce similar facilitatory effects through the learning of artistic styles Hess and Wallsten, , although there is less formal research on the effect of visual art on learning enhancement in general.

The visual system is legendary for its ability to analyze the complex interplay among spatial structures in 2D and 3D space.

World of Art, A (6th Edition)

These powerful analytic capabilities are far in advance of what can be achieved by even the most sophisticated computer algorithms, but they are central to any achievement in visual arts Kubovy, ; Gombrich, , ; Tyler, ; Ramachandran and Hirstein, ; Livingstone, Indeed, neuroscience studies have begun to develop important techniques for the study of the neural circuitry mediating the appreciation of esthetic qualities Zeki, , ; Kawabata and Zeki, ; Tononi, Such experience with the complex structures utilized in the visual arts is likely to make an important contribution to the enhancement of learning in all fields of endeavor.

The analysis of such complex spatial and dynamic spatial structures is one of the key aspects underlying the creativity of advanced thinking. Creative learning is a key aspect of the human thought processes that crosses many domains of neural functioning Gardner, ; Glover et al. Indeed, Dietrich has proposed that there are four basic types of creative learning, each mediated by a distinctive neural circuit.

Creativity may arise either from a basis of deliberate control or from spontaneous generation. When the result of deliberate control, the prefrontal cortex instigates the creative process; the spontaneous generation may arise from activation of the temporal cortex. Both processing modes, deliberate and spontaneous, can guide neural computation in structures that contribute emotional content and in those that provide cognitive analysis, yielding the four basic types of creativity.

This theoretical framework systematizes the interaction between knowledge and creative thinking, and how the nature of this relationship changes as a function of domain and age. Defining art as a communicative system that conveys ideas and concepts explaining why it is possible for the same brain structures that supports other cognitive functions such as human language to be involved in arts such as music or drawing.

This characterization presuppose millions of years of brain evolution and biological adaptive strategies. As a multidisciplinary communicative system, the arts provide an ideal platform for learning about the pleasure of knowing, which in turn provides the motivational inspiration to explore further, to ask questions, analyze and synthesize, and engage in convergent and divergent thinking. Learning and Active Involvement in the Arts The current expansion of interest in the science of learning motivates exploration of the expanded possibilities of conceptual interrelationships offered by training in the arts.

The difficult task of understanding and effectively enhancing learning across disciplines, ages, and cultural specificities is a high priority throughout the world, and may be particularly benefited by training in and even exposure to the arts.

Contemporary research is beginning to explore new neuroscientific hypotheses concerning the effects of learning in activities such as musical performance, drawing, visual esthetics, and dance, on learning in non-artistic domains. Neuroimaging studies have started to reveal that the process of drawing shares cortical substrate with writing, access to the semantic system, memory, naming, imagery, constructional abilities, and the ability to estimate precise spatial relations.

Learning in the domain of visual art, in particular, is reliant on a complex system of perceptual, higher cognitive, and motor functions, suggesting a shared neural substrate and strong potential for cross-cognitive transfer in learning and creativity. For instance, case study by Solso has revealed significant processing differences between the brains of a professional artist and a novice during drawing in the scanner; the comparative analysis of the activation patterns suggests a more effective network of cognitive processing for the brain of the artist.

Results consistent with some of these conclusions have also been reported on the basis of differences in alpha rhythm as a function of level of artistic training Kottlow et al. Recent neuroimaging studies in our lab have addressed the process of learning to draw by comparing BOLD fMRI brain activity before and after training to draw, and correlating it with the advance in drawing performance. These studies, run in diverse groups of people — from sighted to totally blind from birth, were made possible by a unique Cognitive—Kinesthetic Training Method that Likova developed for learning to draw even under the condition of total blindness.

An additional assessment showed a significant improvement in generic spatial and spatiomotor cognition abilities as well. Another approach to the neuroanatomical underpinnings of visual art production and appreciation comes from observations of brain damage in established artists have been described Zaidel and Cohen, , which also provides insight into the relationship between art and other communicative displays by biological organisms, and the role that beauty plays in art. Art should be regarded as a cognitive process in which artists engage the most perplexing issues in present experience and try to find a way of symbolizing them visually so that they can bring coherence to their experience.

In consequence, the definition of art is constantly changing in relation to its time. Understanding how we symbolize our experience, how we use symbolic form to organize our psyches, and what are the neuroanatomical corollaries to these processes, will have obvious implications for learning.

From pre-historical times, visual art has been a form of communication deeply imprinted in human nature. These findings have implications not only for biomedical sciences, but also for learning, pedagogical principles, and general social and educational policies. Another key aspect that the arts bring to the mix is the creativity involved in the generation of the art work, which was analyzed into its experiential components by Wallas , involving i preparation by focusing on the domain of problem and prior approaches to its solution, ii incubation by subconscious processes without explicit activity related to the problem, iii intimation that a solution is on its way, iv insight into a novel solution to the problem, v verification and elaboration of the details of the solution.

The Wallas account is largely cognitive, emphasizing the processes involved in reaching the solution to the problem. He does not specifically address the motivational aspects of how these processes would enhance the learning experience, except in the implied rewardingness of the insight or moment of illumination of the problem solution. It is the inspiration, making the preparation stage intrinsically rewarding rather than a painful grind, can make all the difference to the learning experience.

A fine example of the creative moment in science was described by Andrew Feinberg in a keynote lecture on the expanding field of epigenetics Seay, In this case his preparation was many years of scientific research, but it was the foray into the non-scientific architectural tour that gave rise to the novel insight that took his work to the next level.

Arts, Learning, and Inspiration Another key aspect of learning that can be facilitated by the arts is the emotional inspiration to be involved in the learning process.

Inspiration is an integrative mental function at the intersection of a cognitive, b emotional, and c conative processes. Conative processes are those goal-directed functions relating to the classic third component of the mind championed by Kant, , and McDougall, , constituting the desire, ambition, and will. This system goes beyond classical concepts of beauty to incorporate the elegance of theoretical concepts, the appreciation of the emotive power of the diverse array of post-modern art installations, the grace and dynamism of athletic performances, the economy and evocativeness of political addresses, the interconnected synergy of natural ecological systems, and innumerable other examples throughout the sphere of our world knowledge.

In a sense, inspiration can turn almost any occupation in life into an avocation, a source of satisfaction in achieving life goals.

It is when individuals feel themselves part of larger enterprise that they are inspired to learn, to achieve, and to pursue a meaningful career. Conversely, when their job involves performing the same daily drudgery, inspiration is lacking and they lack motivation to learn, adapt, and prosper. Thus, inspiration is a component of the emotional response to stimuli and actions, when they are perceived as uplifting or emotionally rewarding.

As such it should be expected to be mediated by the limbic system and the reward systems of the brain. An impressive array of neural processing appears to be dedicated to the extraction of reward-related information from environmental stimuli and use of this information in the generation of goal-directed behaviors. In particular, the differential characteristics of activations seen in the dopaminergic mesencephalon, the dorsal striatum, and the orbitofrontal cortex provide distinct examples of the different ways in which reward-related information is processed.

Moreover, the differences in activations seen in these three regions demonstrate the different roles they may play in goal-directed behavior Hollerman et al.

The dopaminergic systems appear to reflect a relatively pure signal of a reward prediction error. The representation of goal-directed behaviors may involve the basal ganglia of the putamen, globus pallidus, and striatum Acevedo et al. Moreover, unlike the dopamine system, much of the striatal system responds to predicted rewards Salimpoor et al. These activations could serve as a component of the neural representation of the appropriate goal-directed behaviors in response to the environmental contingencies associated with desirable goals Engelmann et al.

Finally, neuronal activations in the orbitofrontal cortex appear to encode the relative motivational significance of different rewards. Further insights into this reward circuit may be obtained from psychopharmacological studies. In particular, cocaine is known not simply for inducing a sense of reward, but for producing an enhanced though illusory!

These are the core experiences of inspiration, which can evidently be accessed by this biochemical substitute. Similarly, some of these areas are also implicated in the responses to a romantic image such subcortical structures as the caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, putamen, lateral thalamus, subthalamic nuclei, and ventral tegmental area; Bartels and Zeki, ; Aron et al.

Conversely, acute cocaine infusion produced signal decreases in the temporal pole, medial frontal cortex, and amygdala Breiter et al.

As indicated by these studies, activation of the frontal reward network should not be treated as a unitary mental function, since reward in human experience incorporates a diversity of aspects. The first three aspects may be seen as corresponding to the Freudian mental subdivisions of id, ego, and superego functions — i. The Wallas account is largely cognitive, emphasizing the processes involved in reaching the solution to the problem.

He does not specifically address the motivational aspects of how these processes would enhance the learning experience, except in the implied rewardingness of the insight or moment of illumination of the problem solution. It is the inspiration, making the preparation stage intrinsically rewarding rather than a painful grind, can make all the difference to the learning experience.

A fine example of the creative moment in science was described by Andrew Feinberg in a keynote lecture on the expanding field of epigenetics Seay, In this case his preparation was many years of scientific research, but it was the foray into the non-scientific architectural tour that gave rise to the novel insight that took his work to the next level.

Arts, Learning, and Inspiration Another key aspect of learning that can be facilitated by the arts is the emotional inspiration to be involved in the learning process. Inspiration is an integrative mental function at the intersection of a cognitive, b emotional, and c conative processes. Conative processes are those goal-directed functions relating to the classic third component of the mind championed by Kant, , and McDougall, , constituting the desire, ambition, and will. This system goes beyond classical concepts of beauty to incorporate the elegance of theoretical concepts, the appreciation of the emotive power of the diverse array of post-modern art installations, the grace and dynamism of athletic performances, the economy and evocativeness of political addresses, the interconnected synergy of natural ecological systems, and innumerable other examples throughout the sphere of our world knowledge.

In a sense, inspiration can turn almost any occupation in life into an avocation, a source of satisfaction in achieving life goals. It is when individuals feel themselves part of larger enterprise that they are inspired to learn, to achieve, and to pursue a meaningful career. Conversely, when their job involves performing the same daily drudgery, inspiration is lacking and they lack motivation to learn, adapt, and prosper. Thus, inspiration is a component of the emotional response to stimuli and actions, when they are perceived as uplifting or emotionally rewarding.

As such it should be expected to be mediated by the limbic system and the reward systems of the brain. An impressive array of neural processing appears to be dedicated to the extraction of reward-related information from environmental stimuli and use of this information in the generation of goal-directed behaviors. In particular, the differential characteristics of activations seen in the dopaminergic mesencephalon, the dorsal striatum, and the orbitofrontal cortex provide distinct examples of the different ways in which reward-related information is processed.

Moreover, the differences in activations seen in these three regions demonstrate the different roles they may play in goal-directed behavior Hollerman et al. The dopaminergic systems appear to reflect a relatively pure signal of a reward prediction error.

The representation of goal-directed behaviors may involve the basal ganglia of the putamen, globus pallidus, and striatum Acevedo et al. Moreover, unlike the dopamine system, much of the striatal system responds to predicted rewards Salimpoor et al. These activations could serve as a component of the neural representation of the appropriate goal-directed behaviors in response to the environmental contingencies associated with desirable goals Engelmann et al.

Finally, neuronal activations in the orbitofrontal cortex appear to encode the relative motivational significance of different rewards. Further insights into this reward circuit may be obtained from psychopharmacological studies. In particular, cocaine is known not simply for inducing a sense of reward, but for producing an enhanced though illusory! These are the core experiences of inspiration, which can evidently be accessed by this biochemical substitute. Similarly, some of these areas are also implicated in the responses to a romantic image such subcortical structures as the caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, putamen, lateral thalamus, subthalamic nuclei, and ventral tegmental area; Bartels and Zeki, ; Aron et al.

Conversely, acute cocaine infusion produced signal decreases in the temporal pole, medial frontal cortex, and amygdala Breiter et al. As indicated by these studies, activation of the frontal reward network should not be treated as a unitary mental function, since reward in human experience incorporates a diversity of aspects. The first three aspects may be seen as corresponding to the Freudian mental subdivisions of id, ego, and superego functions — i.

It is this expansive or pluripotent sense of the inspirational feeling that make it so significant as a motivational component of human endeavor. The need for inspiration is something that is well understood by the best teachers, who have the knack of conveying it to their students. However, there is continual pressure to cover specified ranges of exacting material, making it inappropriate for the learning environment to be nothing but entertainment.

Thus, the happy medium between sufficient inspiration and the requisite level of proficiency is difficult to achieve, and is made particularly difficult by the wide range of cognitive styles exhibited by the population of learners.

There is a strong need to identify the effective motivational styles and the dimensionality of the domain of motivational inspiration, in order to expand the repertoire of strategies for learning enhancement.

Moreover, one such form of inspiration is the opportunity to go beyond the predigested material that is presented to develop original insights and contributions to the domain of interest.

This form of creativity can be highly motivating to the learner, who feels part of the enterprise of accumulating the knowledge, rather than a passive recipient of the structured material.

Recommendations for Future Research for the Enhancement of Learning through Art A recent NSF report has assembled recommendations for research strategies for the enhancement of learning through art Tyler et al. Strategic principles Art is fundamentally a communicative medium: the processes of creation and appreciation of art constitutes a special kind of communication; thus future research needs to study both the creators of the art and the consumers enjoyers of the artistic products; a focus on one or the other alone would be incomplete.

Such a dual focus is fundamental to understanding and developing theories of how we learn to create and appreciate art. An adequate theory must account for both the holistic and componential factors that contribute to artistic activities.

Both art learning and art production involve a complex interplay between multiple sensory—motor and higher cognitive mechanisms. To achieve full understanding of the processes involved in any art, as well as the way they influence learning in other domains, the focus of future investigations should not be restricted within one level of the system, but include consideration of the whole complex of interactions between the levels of learning, art creating, and appreciation.

Key research questions How can the dimensionality of the domain be scientifically defined in each of the arts? It is imperative to develop standardized measures and vocabulary in the novel field proposed by the Workshop.

What are the measurable cognitive and biological underpinnings of learning in specific art forms, such as visual arts, music, dance, theater?

How can the relative importance of those learning components be quantified and understood in terms of the neurobiological mechanisms? What are the implicit benefits and cross-cognitive transfer effects of training and experience in the arts?

How can the transformative process of the art experience be studied? What is plasticity of the component abilities across the lifespan?

What is it about art training that helps people become better artists? What is it that the learner is actually learning? What factors do musical, visual art, or dance training impart? What is the link between such training and outcomes in language, social, and cognitive functions? Inspiration is an aspect of mental experience that involves not just cortical circuitry but its integration with the limbic system and medial frontal structures that are understood to mediate the experience of emotions, motivational rewards, and the appreciation of the esthetic values of the impinging stimuli.

What is the mechanism underlying the role of inspiration in long-term learning? How is inspiration related to the mechanisms of attention and reward?

Does the mirror neural system form the neural substrate of the embodied cognition experienced when viewing a work of art? Can the positive or negative valence of the art-induced form of empathy be harnessed to enhance learning in related fields of endeavor? What factors support or invalidate the operation of such a transfer process?

When the arts are integrated with other related disciplines in schools, is there evidence that learning in these other disciplines enhanced?

Does the answer to this question depend upon the type of learner e. There is a need to evaluate the underlying processes to determine what specific mechanisms for such transfer of learning the brain has developed. What are the main principles of learning transfer and how could they be implemented to effectively enhance educational strategies? Methodological recommendations To understand the cross-modal effects of art training, it is necessary to study the basic perceptual processing of the artistic objects that give rise to these experiences.

The extent to which different key parameters play a role in the artistic experience should be investigated parametrically, and determine how these functions map onto the spectrum of artistic expertise. Non-invasive neuroimaging techniques and transcranial magnetic stimulation to generate a reversible blockage of neural activation should be used to answer the questions of learning transfer, enhanced creativity, and enriched esthetic experience.

Causal network modeling of the information flow amongst cortical regions should be further employed and provide new insights into the neural mechanisms of brain plasticity, which are important for the development of cognitive training strategies.

Integration of advanced methods must be employed to measure psychophysiological reactions to the artistic experience. Bliss Bequest. Chapter 1 A World of Art 13 saw them as evidence of an aggressive native opposition to colonial control.

Despite their suppression during the colonial era, such figures are still made today and continue to be used by the peoples of the Kongo. In the West, the desire to give form to spiritual belief is especially apparent in the traditions of Christian religious art.

For example, the idea of daring to represent the Christian God has, throughout the history of the Western world, aroused controversy. In seventeenthcentury Holland, images of God were banned from Protestant churches. As one contemporary Protestant theologian put it, The image of God is His Word that is, the Bible and statues in human form, being an earthen image of visible, earthborn man [are] far away from the truth.

In fact, one of the reasons that Jesus, for Christians the son of God, is so often represented in Western art is that representing the son, a real person, is far easier than representing the father, a spiritual unknown who can only be imagined. Nevertheless, one of the most successful depictions of the Christian God in Western culture was painted by Jan van Eyck nearly years ago as part of an altarpiece for the city of Ghent in Flanders Figs. Indeed, in the richness of his vestments, van Eyck s God apparently values worldly things.

Van Eyck s painting seems to celebrate a materialism that is the proper right of benevolent kings. Behind God s head, across the top of the throne, are Latin words that, translated into English, read: This is God, all powerful in his divine majesty; of all the best, by the gentleness of his goodness; the most liberal giver, because of his infinite generosity. God s mercy and love are indicated by the pelicans embroidered on the tapestry behind him, which in Christian tradition symbolize self-sacrificing love, for pelicans were believed to wound themselves in order to feed their young with their own blood if other food was unavailable.

In the context of the entire altarpiece, where God is flanked by Mary and John the Baptist, choirs of angels, and, at the outer edges, Adam and Eve, God rules over an earthly assembly of worshippers, his divine beneficence is protecting all. In a group of works known as the Siluetas Fig. Panel from The Ghent Altarpiece, c.

Church of St. Bavo, Ghent, Belgium. Revolution of Fidel Castro, Mendieta s parents arranged to have her flown out of Cuba along with thousands of other children in what was known as Operation Peter Pan. For several years after, she lived in a Catholic orphanage in Iowa.

The making of my silueta, she explained, makes the transition between my homeland and my new home. It is a way of reclaiming my roots and becoming one with nature. Although the culture in which I live is part of me, my roots and cultural identity are a result of my Cuban heritage. That heritage, on her mother s side, extends back to the sixteenth-century Spanish conquest of the Americas. When she created the Silueta pictured here, in Mexico, she stained it with red paint to evoke the oppression, even genocide, endured by the native peoples of the Americas after the conquest.

Here the silhouette of the body seems transformed into the imprint of a large, bloody sword on the earth, the head and arms its hilt, the body its blade. The imprint of the live body evokes the grave of her forebears and gives form to the tragedy of her ancestral past. Seeing, as we say, is believing.

Our word idea derives, in fact, from the Greek word idein, meaning to see, and it is no accident that when we say I see we really mean I understand. downloadd with grant provided by the Judith Rothschild Foundation. Chapter 1 A World of Art 15 The Process of Seeing But the act of seeing is not a simple matter of our vision making a direct recording of the reality.

Seeing is both a physical and psychological process. Next, the retina, which is a collection of nerve cells at the back of the eye, extracts the basic information it needs and sends this information to the visual cortex, the part of the brain that processes visual stimuli.

There are approximately million sensors in the retina, but only 5 million channels to the visual cortex. In other words, the retina does a lot of editing, and so does the visual cortex. There, special mechanisms capable of extracting specific information about such features as color, motion, orientation, and size create what is finally seen. What you see is the inference your visual cortex extracts from the information your retina sends it.

Seeing, in other words, is an inherently creative process. The visual system makes conclusions about the world. It represents the world for you by selecting out information, deciding what is important and what is not. Consider, for example, what sort of visual information you have stored about the American flag. You know its colors red, white, and blue and that it has 50 stars and 13 stripes. You know, roughly, its shape rectangular.

But do you know its proportions? Do you even know, without looking, what color stripe is at the flag s top, or what color is at the bottom? How many short stripes are there, and how many long ones? How many horizontal rows of stars are there? How many long rows? How many short ones? The point is that not only do we each perceive the same things differently, remembering different details, but also we do not usually see things as thoroughly or accurately as we might suppose.

As the philosopher Nelson Goodman explains, The eye functions not as an instrument self-powered and alone, but as a dutiful member of a complex and capricious organism. Not only how but what it sees is regulated by need and prejudice.

It selects, rejects, organizes, discriminates, associates, classifies, analyzes, constructs.

It does not so much mirror as take and make. In other words, the eye mirrors each individual s complex perceptions of the world. Active Seeing Everything you see is filtered through a long history of fears, prejudices, desires, emotions, customs, and beliefs. Through art, we can begin to understand those filters and learn to look more closely at the visual world.

Jasper Johns s Three Flags Fig. According to Johns, when he created this work, the flag was something seen but not looked at, not examined. Three Flags was painted at a time when the nation was obsessed with patriotism, spawned by Senator Joseph McCarthy s anti-communist hearings in , by President Eisenhower s affirmation of all things American, and by the Soviet Union s challenge of American supremacy through Fig.

Alfred Taubman, an anonymous donor, and download While contemporary viewers may not have experienced that Cold War era, the work still asks us to consider what the flag represents. In it, the American flag has been turned into a prison cell. Painted during a time when white prejudice against African Americans was enforced by the legal system, the star of the flag becomes a sheriff s badge, and its red and white stripes are transformed into the black bars of the jail.

The white woman portrayed in the painting is the very image of contradiction, at once a patriot, pledging allegiance to the flag, and a racist, denying blacks the right to vote. She is a prisoner to her own bigotry.

Flags inevitably raise questions of national pride and identity. In a series of museum installations, Yukinori Yanagi has used ant farms as a means to make witty assaults on nationalism. For a museum installation entitled America Fig.

Unit One: Islam and Religious Art

Each box was connected to adjacent boxes by plastic tubing. Yanagi then introduced ants into the system, which immediately began carrying colored sand between flags, transforming and corrupting the flags original designs. As each flag s integrity was degraded by these border crossFig. Yanagi s work directly addresses the permeable boundaries that exist between countries sharing a single land mass; his other work makes a similar statement about border crossings on a global scale.

Audiences have interpreted the work as an image of the destruction of local cultures or as the creation of a new multiculturalism. While the meaning of the work is open for interpretation, there is no question of its power to draw us into a closer examination of our perceptions of the world.

Collection of the artist. Artists are engaged in a creative process. We respond to their work through a process of critical thinking. At the end of each chapter of A World of Art is a section like this one titled The Critical Process in which, through a series of questions, you are invited to think for yourself about the issues raised in the chapter.

In each case, additional insights are provided at the end of the text, in the section titled The Critical Process: Thinking Some More about the Chapter Questions. After you have thought about the questions raised, turn to the back and see if you are headed in the right direction. The traditional roles of the artist to help us see the world in new or innovative ways; to make a visual record of the people, places, and events of their time and place; to I Fig.

Which of these is, in your opinion, the most important for Warhol in creating this work? Did any of the other traditional roles play a part in the process?

[PDF eBook] A World of Art (8th Edition) By Henry M. Sayre

What do you think Warhol feels about the events note that the print followed soon after the events themselves? How does his use of color contribute to his composition?

Can you think why there are two red panels, and only one white and one blue? Emotionally, what is the impact of the red panels? In other words, what is the work s psychological impact? What reactions other than your own can you imagine the work generating? These are just a few of the questions raised by Warhol s work, questions to help you initiate the critical process for yourself.

Los Angeles County Museum. V isual art can be powerfully persuasive, and one of the purposes of this book is to help you to recognize how this is so. Yet it is important for you to understand from the outset that you can neither recognize nor understand let alone communicate how visual art affects you without using language.

In other words, one of the primary purposes of any art appreciation text is to provide you with a descriptive vocabulary, a set of terms, phrases, concepts, and approaches that will allow you to think critically about visual images. It is not sufficient to say, I like this or that painting. You need to be able to recognize why you like it, how it communicates to you.

This ability is given the name visual literacy. The fact is, most of us take the visual world for granted. We assume that we understand what we see. Those of us born and raised in the television era are often accused of being nonverbal, passive receivers, like TV monitors themselves. If television, the Internet, movies, and magazines have made us virtually dependent upon visual information, we have not necessarily become visually literate in the process. This chapter will introduce you to some essential concepts in visual literacy the relationships among words, images, and objects in the real world; the idea of representation; and the distinctions among form and content in art, conventions in art, and iconography.

Reproduced with permission. Ellen Kelleran Gardner Fund, Magritte reproduced an image of a pipe similar to that found in tobacco store signs and ads of his time.

The caption under the pipe translates into English as This is not a pipe, which at first seems contradictory. We tend to look at the image of a pipe as if it were really a pipe, but of course it isn t. It is the representation of a pipe.Conflict of Interest Statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

Kusama makes us aware of just how small we are in the grand scheme of things. Could this fact account for claims that arts exercise other part of the brain and improve other cognitive abilities? A fine example of the creative moment in science was described by Andrew Feinberg in a keynote lecture on the expanding field of epigenetics Seay, This system goes beyond classical concepts of beauty to incorporate the elegance of theoretical concepts, the appreciation of the emotive power of the diverse array of post-modern art installations, the grace and dynamism of athletic performances, the economy and evocativeness of political addresses, the interconnected synergy of natural ecological systems, and innumerable other examples throughout the sphere of our world knowledge.

Brain , — While the meaning of the work is open for interpretation, there is no question of its power to draw us into a closer examination of our perceptions of the world. These are to produce a work of art, the artist must be able to some of the questions that this book is designed to respond to the unexpected, the chance occurrences or help you address.

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