HANDBOOK OF WEAVING Sabit Adanur, B.S., M.S., Ph.D. Professor, Department of Textile Engineering Auburn University, Alabama, U.S.A.. SULZER. Weaving Author: Sabit Adanur Reference Book of Textile Technologies - Weaving Weaving a Library Web: A Guide to Developing Children's Websites. Handbook of Weaving - CRC Press Book. Sabit Adanur To help you meet this and other weaving challenges, Handbook of Weaving covers every step of the.

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Request PDF on ResearchGate | On Jan 1, , S. Adanur and others published Handbook of Handbook of weaving Sabit Adanur at Auburn University. Sabit Adanur #Handbook of Weaving #, #CRC Press Terms for Composites # pdf download Handbook of Weaving pdf file. Get this from a library! Handbook of weaving. [Sabit Adanur].

The basis of knit fabric structure is the continuing intersection of loops. This feature provides unique characteristics to the knit fabrics compared to woven and braided fabrics. Practically, there are an endless number of knit fabric structures. Knit fabrics are widely used in apparel and home furnishings. They are also used in technical textiles, such as artificial arteries, bandages, casts, composites, sporting equipment, etc.

Tufting is the process of manufacturing some carpets and similar structures. The loops are arranged in vertical columns rows and horizontal lines stitches. Loops can be in the form of cut or uncut loops piles or a combination of thereof.

The fabric is usually back-coated in a later process to secure tufted loops. Bonding is the method of manufacturing nonwovens using either textile, paper, extrusion, or some combination of these technologies, to form and bond polymers, fibers, filaments, yarns or combination sheets into a flexible, porous structure.

The resulting structure is quite different than the structures mentioned above. In fact, some nonwoven products are claimed by both the textile industry and paper industry. Big industries have evolved around each method of fabric manufacturing in almost every country in the world.

Around 40 countries have major textile industries and another 50 countries produce woven fabrics in various amounts. This book is concerned only with the weaving process and woven fabrics. A typical modern weaving machine consists of up to parts working together in a very precise manner. Although shuttle looms have been obsolete, reference is still made to them, for comparison purposes, when describing shuttleless weaving machines. Other reasons for development of different clothing throughout the history are social status, religious requirements, etc.

Clothing trends depend on location as well. Historical findings suggest that Egyptians made woven fabrics some years ago. Chinese made fine fabrics from silk over years ago. It is believed that the hand loom has been invented many times in different civilizations [2]. Weaving started as a domestic art and stayed as a cottage industry until the invention of the fly shuttle.

The fly shuttle, invented in by Kay, was hand operated. In , Cartwright invented the power loom which could be operated from a single point. In the early s, looms made of cast iron, were operated by steam power. Power loom required stronger warp yarn, resulting in development of the first sizing machine in In the s, there were some , shuttle looms operating in England.

In the early 20th century, improvements were made in the winding and warping of yarns. The looms were improved further, including warp tying machines and warp drawing-in machines. After the end of the World War II, the modern textile industry began to emerge. Invention of synthetic fibers changed the scope of textile industry drastically.

In an engineer named Rossmann developed the first prototype of projectile weaving machines. In the first commercial projectile weaving machines were shipped. Production of rapier and airjet weaving machines started in and , respectively. The fundamental principle of weaving has remained unchanged for centuries.

Today, as in the past, woven fabrics are made by crossing yarns over and under at right angles to one another. This method of producing textiles has many advantages, e.

These are the features that distinguish woven fabrics from the cheaper nonwovens and knitted goods. Major increases have been revealed at textile machinery shows.

These machinery shows usually alternate with each other. Further major increases in performance can only be achieved with new technologies such as multi phase weaving machines Chapter Schematics of the filling insertion systems that are used in the market are shown in Figure 1. Based on the filling insertion systems, the weaving machines can be classified as shuttle and shuttleless weaving machines. Shuttle looms have been used for centuries to make woven fabrics. In this type of loom, a shuttle, which carries the filling yarn wound on a quill, is transported from one side to the other and back.

In the mid 20th century, other weaving machines started to emerge that used other forms of filling insertion mechanisms such as air, projectile, rapier and water. In reference to shuttle looms, these machines are called shuttleless looms or shuttleless weaving machines.

Today, the shuttle looms have become obsolete and are not manufactured anymore except for some very special niche markets. Nevertheless, approximately 2.

However, they are being replaced by the shuttleless weaving machines at a fast rate. Today, the three most popular weaving machines are air-jet, rapier and projectile machines Figure 1. Table 1. The total number of weaving machines is decreasing in the textile industry.

However, it should be noted that the total productivity is either increasing or staying constant. Since the early beginnings of mechanical weaving, productivity in the weaving mill has practically doubled every 25 years. Industrialized nations spend more on clothing. Fashion changes garments every few months. Although throwing away textiles before the end of their usable lives is wasteful, it stimulates new developments and business.

Adanur, S. Lord, P. Seidl, R. Isaacs III, M. Ishida, T. Compare the major fabric types shown in Figure 1. Does a woven or knit fabric have better insulation properties? In how many ways can you classify the weaving machines? Give your own definition of woven fabrics. It is not the intent of this chapter to include details, but rather to give a brief introduction to these subjects. There are excellent sources in these areas and the reader is referred to those for in-depth understanding of these topics.

Woven fabrics are made of yarns, yarns are made of fiber s , and fibers are made of polymer molecules.

Therefore, a polymer is the very first step in making a woven fabric. A polymer is a molecular chain-like structure from which manmade fibers are derived. A polymer is produced by linking together molecular units called monomers.

Polymerization is a chemical reaction in which small molecules are combined to form much larger, long chain polymer molecules. There are two types of polymerization: addition polymerization and condensation polymerization. In addition polymerization, the molecular formula of the repeating unit is identical with the monomer. The molecular weight of the newly formed polymer is the sum of the molecular weight of the combined monomer units.

Polymerization takes place by rearranging the chemical bonds. In condensation polymerization, the repeating unit of the polymer has less atoms than the monomer or monomers. Synthetic polymers are derived from oil [1]. All natural and manmade textile fibers are made of polymers. Polymers can be grouped under two categories: homopolymer and copolymer. In a homopolymer, the repeating units of the polymer are the same.

Homopolymers can be periodic. A copolymer has at least two types of monomer precursors.

Copolymers can be alternating, random, block, graft and branched [2,3]. However, the common name of the polymer that is used in practice may be different than the IUPAC name. Table 2. There are thousands of polymers that are patented in the world. Natural fibers are found in animals or plants. Man-made fibers are produced from polymers.

Man-made fibers are manufactured by spinning the polymer. There are three major types of spinning processes: melt, dry and wet spinning Figure 2.

In melt spinning, the polymer is melted by heating. The molten polymer is pumped through the tiny holes of a spinnerette; thus the fiber is formed. The fiber is then cooled and solidified. In dry spinning, polymer is dissolved in a solvent.

After extrusion through a spinnerette, the solvent is evaporated and the fiber is solidified. In wet spinning, the polymer is dissolved in a solvent similar to dry spinning. After extrusion, the solvent is removed in a liquid coagulating medium. Among the three methods, melt spinning is the most common. If a polymer can be melted, then melt spinning is the choice for fiber production.

A typical fiber extrusion machine includes hopper, extruder, metering pump, spinneret, quench tank, finish applicators, godets and winder. Spinneret hole shapes vary depending on the end use of the fiber. Figure 2. It should be noted that in addition to melt, dry and wet spinning, there are other spinning methods, as well. TABLE 2. This adjustment is necessary, even though finer staple fibers, e.

Otherwise, microfibers would be too delicate in comparison with the natural fibers blended with them. For this reason, problems such as the formation of slubs, would arise when spinning staple fibers.

Polyester staple fibers of count 0. The great quantity of fibers in the yarn cross section and the resulting increased fiber surface lead to an increase in drafting forces, and, thus, to drafting disturbances. Spinning problems with microfibers that, in many cases, can be remedied only by lowering the processing speed, have, to date, obviated a real market penetration of staple fiber yarns.

The spinning of microfilaments with fine and finest single titres is easier with polyester than with polyamide. Modern spinning technology has virtually no restrictions.

Technically, it should be possible to spin microfilaments with single titres of 0. Because of the textile properties of the fabrics, the manufacturers of man-made fibers have decided to produce polyester fibers with single titres of 0. Fabrics of microfilaments with still finer single titres are losing fastness, have poor appearance, and too soft a hand. Fabrics of this sort could be used for ready-to-wear clothes only with restrictions. The different counts of the single polyester and polyamide titres are caused by the fact that the softer polyamide with single titres of 0.

Fabric constructions of microfibers enable a great variety of applications. Fabric finishing, therefore, is of great importance and makes considerable demands on the ingenuity of the finisher. Within the area of functional garments, the requirements focus on waterproofness but permeability to steam Figure 2. These demands are, as a rule, fulfilled by densely woven microfilament fabrics.

Whenever necessary, the desired properties are reinforced with the aid of hot calendering and waterproofing. The latter is done with water repellent fluorocarbon products. Waterproofness of up to mm water column can be obtained by coating. Fashionable garments are somewhat lighter in weight. The shaping of the surface is very important and hence varied. Presently, peachskin treatment is quite significant and is mostly carried out prior to dyeing.

Another important topic is the vivid surface, e. Finishing technologies are currently seeing a real development boom, since the surface treatment of microfibers allows for the most varied combinations. Further, it is interesting to note that fashionable finishings show an ecologically positive trend. Today, all of the leading manufacturers of manmade fibers carry microfilaments and fibers of polyester and polyamide in their range of commodities.

The offered yarns are either flat or texturized. Presently, the titre program comprises the yarn count range of dtex 50 f 72 up to dtex f , with all current intermediate stages. This is a must with functional garments, in order to obtain the desired impermeability to water.

With aesthetic clothes, fabric density affords appealing fabric volume and a sufficient degree of antislip properties. For filling yarns, finer titres like 50 or 76 dtex are preferred. With fine microfilaments, high filling densities call for high quality warps. The makers of microfilaments offer sized warp beams, preferably with different standard numbers of yarns, but also with yarn quantities demanded by the customer. Because of the high warp densities, half warp beams must first be sized and assembled afterwards.

All microfilaments can, indiscriminately and without any restrictions, be processed on projectile, rapier and air-jet weaving machines. For filling insertion, prewinders and yarn brakes must be used that are suited to processing filament yarns. In order to obtain satisfactory running behavior with texturized microfilaments, they must be more thoroughly intermingled.

The setting parameters of the weaving machine must be most carefully observed so as to obtain optimum fabric appearance with these dense fabrics.

Microfilaments may be used for fabric construction in the combinations listed in Table 2. This applies to polyester as well as to polyamide yarns. Its chemical properties are similar to PET but its physical properties are different due to micromorphology.

The glass transition temperature is lower due to greater chain mobility, which allows atmospheric dyeability. After the fibers are formed or obtained, they are made into yarns. There are various types of yarns, and the classification can be made based on different characteristics of yarns. Based on the manufacturing method, yarns are classified as continuous filament yarns and staple yarns.

Manufacturing of continuous filaments is relatively easy. Continuous filament yarns are made by spinning the polymer. A number of spun fibers also called filaments are collected together to produce the desired continuous filament yarn size. Continuous filaments are smooth and lustrous. Most continuous filament yarns have a finish on them to protect the individual filaments from abrasion and snagging. Flat continuous filament yarns, as produced, are not suitable for many apparel fabrics.

Therefore, these yarns are subjected to texturing process. Texturing makes the continuous filament yarns bulkier and stretchable. Different texturing methods are used such as false twist, crimping, knit-de-knit and air-jet.

By the nature of the fiber spinning process, the fiber lengths are very long. Therefore, the man-made fibers are cut into short staples to make the staple yarn. Of course, natural fibers already come in short staple form. Staple spun yarns are made of twisting and entangling short fibers together.

Both natural and man-made fibers can be used to make staple yarns. The length of the staple typically varies between 2. There are several well-established spinning methods. The major methods are ring spinning, open-end rotor spinning, air-jet spinning and friction spinning. Prior to the actual spinning process, spinning preparation takes place.

This may include blending, opening, cleaning, carding, drawing, combing and roving, depending on the requirements on the yarn. Not every step is mandatory for every staple yarn. In ring spinning, fibers in the roving are twisted by a traveler rotating on a ring Figure 2. In open-end spinning also called rotor spinning , fibers are twisted together inside a rotor that is rotating at high speeds Figure 2. In MJS, two air jet nozzles are used to twist and entangle the fibers in the sliver.

The air vortexes inside the nozzles are in opposite directions. Therefore, the first nozzle twists the fibers in one direction and the second nozzle twists the fibers in the other direction Figure 2. However, there is no positively controlled twist given to the yarn. Yarn does have real twist in its structure, which is similar to twist in ring spun yarns. The rotation of the drums gives twist and entanglement to the fibers.

The yarns that are produced with each spinning method have quite different structures and properties as far as sizing and weaving are concerned. The ring spun yarns are characterized by high level and relatively uniform twist. In open end spun yarns, there is a distinct core of fibers with relatively low twist; other fibers are wrapped around the core.

The structure of air-jet yarns is in between the open end and ring spun yarns.

The strength of MVS yarns is closer to ring spun yarns than the other methods. Ring spun yarns also have the highest elongation followed by jet spun and open end yarns.

The evenness of jet spun yarns is more than open end yarns that are, in turn, more consistent than ring spun yarns.

As a result, the jet and open end spun yarns have fewer slubs, thin and thick places which result in less warp stops at the loom. Ring spun yarn has the highest hairiness due to a high twist level that causes the fibers to protrude from the yarn structure.

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Open end and jet spun yarns are more susceptible to handling damage than ring spun yarns. Ring spun yarns are costlier than open end yarns which in turn are costlier than Murata vortex spun yarns.

Two or more single yarns can be twisted together to obtain ply yarns. In the direct yarn number system, weight per unit length is specified. Heavier yarn has greater weight per unit length.

In the indirect yarn number system, length per unit weight is specified. Less heavy yarn has greater length per unit weight. Traditionally, the direct system is used in the metric system and indirect system is used in the English system. However, there are exceptions to this. Examples of direct yarn number system units are tex and denier. The tex is the weight in grams of meters of yarn. For example, a tex yarn weighs grams per kilometer.

In the indirect yarn number system, the number of hanks in one pound of yarn is indicated. If there is one hank in one pound of yarn, then that yarn is called 1s ones single count yarn; if there are 7 hanks, it is called 7s sevens single count, etc.

The length of a hank is different for different kinds of yarns. A cotton hank is yards. For worsted yarn, one hank is yards and for linen yarn one hank is yards. In the indirect system: 2. Due to this inverse relationship, this system is called the indirect system. The relation between metric count and cotton count is: 2. The letters S and Z are used to designate left and right twist, respectively Figure 2.

Twist Multiplier In practice, twist multiplier is used to calculate the turns per inch necessary for a given size spun yarn. Review Questions 17 2. Brandrup, J. Broughton, R. Find out what a generic name and a trade name for a fiber is. Twist multiplier is determined from the turns per inch and the cotton count: 2. What is fiber spinning versus yarn spinning? How do the crystallinity and molecular orientation affect the fiber properties?

If you were to design a battledress uniform fabric, how would you choose the fiber, yarn and fabric structures? The structure of the fabric and its appearance are affected by the pattern of interlacing to a large extent. As a result, fabrics made of the same yarns may differ greatly in appearance and properties if the interlacing pattern is different. There is practically an unlimited number of weaves that can be developed. This gives the designer endless possibilities to develop a fabric for any purpose.

The possibilities are only limited by the imagination of the designer. This is an obvious advantage that textile technology offers. The warp yarns are parallel to each other and run lengthwise through the fabric or along the weaving machine direction.

In general, there are thousands of warp ends on a typical weaving machine making a fabric. Sometimes, a warp yarn is also called the machine direction yarn, especially in industrial fabric manufacturing. Filling yarns run perpendicular to the warp yarns. The name usually depends on the industry.

Figure 3. Facing the machine from front, the right of the observer indicates the right side of the weaving machine. This is the side where the pick is received receiving side. The left side, where the pick is inserted from, is called the picking side. Although most modern weaving machines use the left side as the picking side, in some machines the right side is the picking side. The warp yarns are numbered starting from the left side of the weaving machine. The harness numbering starts from the front side of the loom.

These reference points are important to avoid confusion among the professionals. Order of interlacing is a result of order of entering the warp yarns through the heddles and order of lifting the harnesses. Order of interlacing of a fabric is called the weave. In the weave diagram, the columns represent the warp yarns ends and the rows represent the filling yarns picks. The ends are numbered from left to right, and the picks are numbered from bottom to top.

A square in the diagram represents the intersection of one end and one pick. If the warp yarn is over the filling yarn in that intersection, then the square is filled or marked with an X that is why a weave diagram is also called an X-diagram , or any other symbol.

For example, in the figure the first warp yarn is over the first filling yarn, the second warp yarn is under the first filling yarn, and so on. The weave diagram should show at least the minimum number of warps and fillings needed to identify the woven structure completely.

Describing the repeat unit is usually enough to identify the whole fabric structure, since the rest of the fabric is formed by extending the repeat unit in the warp and filling directions as shown in Figure 3. Starting from the left side of the weaving machine the warp yarns are selected one by one, the first, the second, the third, etc.

Drawing-in-Draft DID diagram indicates which warp end is attached to which harness as shown in Figure 3. The vertical columns in the DID represent the warp yarns and the horizontal rows represent the harnesses which are numbered sequentially from bottom to top. If a warp yarn is controlled by a 3. For example in Figure 3. The DID diagram should show the configuration for the whole repeat unit unit cell of the fabric.

Straight draw is the simplest and therefore the most widely used drawing pattern. However, there also are drawing plans other than straight draw.

Hand Book of Weaving

Some of these plans are shown in Figure 3. If there are warp yarns in the unit cell that have the same interlacing pattern, then these warp yarns can be attached to the same harness, thus minimizing 22 FIGURE 3. This is called least harnesses draw. Of course a straight draw can also be used; however, in that case, the number of harnesses required will be equal to the number of warp yarns in the unit cell as shown in Figure 3. The advantage of straight draw is the simplicity of drawing.

The disadvantage is the cost of extra harnesses that may not be needed.

Naturally, each warp end would correspond to one dent. However, it is not practical to draw only one yarn through a dent since the number of warp yarns is generally more than the number of dents in the reed. Therefore, in practice more than one yarn is placed in a dent.

The practical number of warp yarns per dent can be between 2 and 4. The upper limit is determined by the warp diameters and the width of the dent. The warp yarns should be able to move up and down freely in the dent during shed change in order to have interlacing with the filling yarns.

If a simple reed plan is to be used, it may not be necessary to draw a reed plan but simply state the number of warp yarns per dent. This is done using cam draft or chain draft CD for cam and dobby shedding.

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In jacquard shedding, every warp end is controlled individually. CD diagram shows the order of lifting the harnesses and therefore the warp yarns since each warp end is attached to a harness.

In CD diagram, the columns represent the harnesses and the rows represent the picks.

The picks are numbered from bottom to top as in the case of unit cell; therefore, the heights of the unit cell and the CD are equal. Conversely, a blank square means that the harness is lowered during the insertion of that particular weft. In the figure, harness 1 and harness 4 are lifted during the insertion of the first pick. In practice, Figures 3. Such an organization of weave diagram, DID, reed plan and CD gives most of the information for the design and manufacturing of the fabric.

The only information missing from this diagram is the selvages. The DID diagram and reed plan for selvages are constructed similar to the body of the fabric. For single layer fabrics, drawing of these profiles is relatively easy. Warp and filling profiles are especially helpful to better visualize complex fabric structures such as multilayer fabrics.

Assuming that they have similar yarns and the same number of warp and filling yarns per unit length, they have different properties, e. Although there are some weaves that are difficult to structurally connect to these three basic structures, most of the others are derived from these three basic 26 FIGURE 3.

The immediate derivatives of these three structures are warp rib, filling rib, and basket weave. These six designs are explained below. It should be noted that some consider the twill weave as the only basic weave from which all the other weaves are derived.

It has oneover one-under interlacing for both warp and filling yarns as shown in Figure 3. Plain weave requires only two harnesses. However, it can be woven on more than two harnesses especially if the warp density is more than 50 ends per inch epi.

Quite often, it is woven on four harnesses. As a result of this, the plain weave has low modulus compared to other designs that have less crimp in their structure. This results in a design that has ribs or texture ridges across the fabric in the warp direction which are caused by grouping of filling yarns.

The repeat units of all warp ribs have two warp yarns. The first warp follows the formula and the second warp does the opposite. Therefore, any warp rib design requires a minimum of two harnesses.

The number of filling yarns in the repeat unit is the sum of the digits in the warp rib formula. Warp rib formulae are classified as regular balanced or irregular unbalanced. The numerator and denominator of a regular or balanced warp rib formula is the same number, e. In irregular or unbalanced formula, the digits are different numbers, e. Lessons include: 1. AQA provides qualifications that enable students to progress to the next stage in their lives. We also support teachers to develop their professional skills.

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Short Vita futurista. Language: Italian. Session 4: Vita Futurista. Il Futurismo. E' sempre necessario immaginare un nuovo futuro. I visionari e le opere che.Around 40 countries have major textile industries and another 50 countries produce woven fabrics in various amounts.

However, it should be noted that the total productivity is either increasing or staying constant. The only information missing from this diagram is the selvages. Consequently, this type of device can only detect thick places in the yarn.

Isaacs III, M. A polymer is produced by linking together molecular units called monomers. It is possible to develop weaves with various patterns such as honeycomb, stripes, check patterns, spot patterns, etc.

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